Autoimmune hepatitis is inflammation in your liver that occurs when your body's immune system attacks your liver. Although the cause of autoimmune hepatitis isn't entirely clear, some diseases, toxins and drugs may trigger autoimmune hepatitis in susceptible people, especially women.
Untreated autoimmune hepatitis can lead to scarring of the liver (cirrhosis) and eventually to liver failure. When diagnosed and treated early, however, autoimmune hepatitis often can be controlled with drugs that suppress the immune system.
A liver transplant may be an option when autoimmune hepatitis doesn't respond to drug treatments or when liver disease is advanced.
Signs and symptoms of autoimmune hepatitis can range from minor to severe and may come on suddenly or develop over time. Some people have few, if any, recognized problems in the early stages of the disease, whereas others experience signs and symptoms that may include:
- Abdominal discomfort
- Joint pain
- Itching (pruritus)
- Yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice)
- An enlarged liver
- Abnormal blood vessels on the skin (spider angiomas)
- Nausea and vomiting
- Loss of appetite
- Skin rashes
- Dark-colored urine
- In women, loss of menstruation
Autoimmune hepatitis occurs when the body's immune system, which ordinarily attacks viruses, bacteria and other pathogens, instead targets the liver. This attack on your liver can lead to chronic inflammation and serious damage to liver cells. Just why the body turns against itself is unclear, but researchers think autoimmune hepatitis could be caused by an interaction between several Risk Factors, such as infections, medications and a genetic predisposition.
Types of autoimmune hepatitis
Doctors have identified two main forms of autoimmune hepatitis:
- Type 1 (classic) autoimmune hepatitis. This is the most common type of the disease. It can occur at any age. About half the people with type 1 autoimmune hepatitis have other autoimmune disorders, such as thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis or ulcerative colitis.
- Type 2 autoimmune hepatitis. Although adults can develop type 2 autoimmune hepatitis, it's most common in young girls and often occurs with other autoimmune problems.
Factors that may increase your risk of autoimmune hepatitis include:
- Although both men and women can develop autoimmune hepatitis, the disease is far more common in women.
- Age. Type 1 autoimmune hepatitis can occur at any age. Type 2 primarily affects young girls.
- A history of certain infections. Autoimmune hepatitis may develop after a bacterial or viral infection.
- Use of certain medications. Certain medications, such as the antibiotic minocycline (Dynacin, Minocin, others) and the cholesterol medication atorvastatin (Lipitor), have been linked to autoimmune hepatitis.
- Heredity. Evidence suggests that a predisposition to autoimmune hepatitis may run in families.
- Having an autoimmune disease. People who already have an autoimmune disease may be more likely to develop autoimmune hepatitis.
Autoimmune hepatitis may be associated with a variety of other autoimmune diseases, including:
- Pernicious anemia. Associated with a number of autoimmune disorders, pernicious anemia occurs when a lack of vitamin B-12 interferes with your body's ability to form red blood cells.
- Hemolytic anemia. In this type of anemia, your immune system attacks and breaks down red blood cells faster than your bone marrow can replace them.
- Ulcerative colitis. This inflammatory bowel disease can cause severe bouts of watery or bloody diarrhea and abdominal pain.
- Autoimmune thyroiditis (Hashimoto's thyroiditis). In this condition, the immune system attacks the thyroid gland.
- Rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis occurs when the immune system attacks the lining of your joints, leading to stiffness, pain, swelling, and sometimes deformity and disability.
- Celiac disease. This disease causes an abnormal reaction to gluten, a protein found in many grains. Eating gluten sets off an immune response that damages the small intestine.
Complications of liver damage
Autoimmune hepatitis that goes untreated can cause permanent scarring of the liver tissue (cirrhosis). Complications of cirrhosis include:
- Increased blood pressurein the portal vein. Blood from your intestine, spleen and pancreas enters your liver through a large blood vessel called the portal vein. If scar tissue blocks normal circulation through your liver, this blood backs up, leading to increased pressure within the portal vein (portal hypertension).
- Enlarged veinsin your esophagus (esophageal varices). When circulation through the portal vein is blocked, blood may back up into other blood vessels — mainly those in your stomach and esophagus. The blood vessels are thin walled, and because they're filled with more blood than they're meant to carry, they're likely to bleed. Massive bleeding in the esophagus from these blood vessels is a life-threatening emergency that requires immediate medical care.
- Fluid in your abdomen (ascites). Liver disease can cause large amounts of fluid to accumulate in your abdomen. Ascites can be uncomfortable and may interfere with breathing and is usually a sign of advanced cirrhosis.
- Liver failureThis occurs when extensive damage to liver cells makes it impossible for your liver to function adequately. At this point, a liver transplant is the only option.
- Liver cancerPeople with cirrhosis have an increased risk of liver cancer.
Care and Treatment
The hepatitis A vaccine can prevent infection with the virus. The hepatitis A vaccine is typically given in two doses initial vaccination followed by a booster shot six months later. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends the following individuals receive a hepatitis A vaccine:
- All children at age 1, or older children who didn't receive the vaccine at age 1.
- Laboratory workers who may come in contact with hepatitis A.
- Men who have sex with men.
- People planning travel to areas of the world with high rates of hepatitis A.
- People who use illegal drugs, injected and non-injected.
- People who receive treatment with clotting-factor concentrates.
- People with chronic liver disease.
If you're concerned about your risk of hepatitis A, ask your doctor if you should be vaccinated.
Follow safety precautions when traveling.
If you're traveling in regions where hepatitis A outbreaks occur, peel and wash all fresh fruits and vegetables yourself and avoid raw or undercooked meat and fish.
Drink bottled water and use it when brushing your teeth. Don't drink beverages of unknown purity, with or without ice. If bottled water isn't available, boil tap water before drinking it.
Practice good hygiene
Thoroughly wash your hands often, especially after using the toilet or changing a diaper and before preparing food or eating.